, Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem, p.59, 1994.

. Doe, citing The Old English Version of the Heptateuch, AElfric's Treatise on the Old and New Testament, and his Preface to Genesis, 1922.

. Doe,

, Jenkins, 12-4 and 25 (the queen also had a dysteyn, Law of Hywel Dda, p.28

K. &. Larson and . Household, , pp.172-176

, S 792; see the commentary of S 782 in Charters of Peterborough Abbey, p.250, 2009.

C. R. Hart, 172-5: the abbreviations appear at least in Hart's versions A (a thirteenth-century ms of Peterborough, which he prints) and D (a fourteenth-century Cotton manuscript, 1966.

J. M. Kemble, Codex diplomaticus aevi Saxonici, vol.3, p.72

, Burt 23): he is 'Eanwulf 22' in PASE. See Charters of Burton Abbey, pp.38-47, 1979.

M. William-of, , vol.16, pp.130-133

D. Book and . Ches, fol. 265r. I quote from the Phillimore edition, by county (i.e., volume) and folio: Domesday Book (29 vols, pp.1975-1992

D. Book and . Salop,

K. S. Keats-rohan and D. People, A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents, vol.i, pp.367-392, 1999.

. Keats-rohan, Domesday People, pp.143-147

S. Baxter, 243, considers this charter as a proof that pre-conquest non-royal household employed seneschals, 2007.

, See among others the case of Peter 'chief of bakers' (pistorum princeps) mentioned by Ermoldus Nigellus in his Poem for Louis the Pious: Depreux, Prosopographie, p.349

L. Bournazel and . Vi, Montfort-sur-Risle and Pont-Audemer in 1123, a troop of the French Vexin, commanded by Louis pincerna and Harcher cocus, defeated the knights of Henry I, vol.224

S. Guillot, Pouvoirs et institutions, p.251

, Asketelli coqui mei; Wulgeti pincernae mei; Wulnoti dapiferi mei, S, vol.189

R. Kay, Wulfsige and ninth-century Northumbrian chronology, Northern History, xix, vol.12, pp.8-14, 1983.

F. H. Dickinson, The sale of Combe', Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society's Proceedings, xxii (1876), See the commentary in S. Keynes, 'Giso, Bishop of Wells, pp.203-71, 1997.

, See below for a discussion of this charter, S 1036: regine pincerna, regine dapifer

L. Asser, K. Of, and . Alfred, , p.4, 1959.

J. L. Nelson, Reconstructing a royal family, Essays in honour of Peter Hayes Sawyer, pp.47-66, 1991.

, CantCC 73): abbreviated as cel' in the charter

N. J. Higham and M. J. Ryan, AEthelmod 7'; on his family and career, see, He is 'AEthelmod 5' and, pp.232-235, 2013.

, Sigewulf 6', '7' and '8' in PASE. The will of ealdorman Alfred is S 1508

, Sigewulf's death is known from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ms. A, s. a. 903, 1986.

R. Higham and A. World,

A. Williams, Princeps Merciorum gentis: the family, career and connections of AElfhere, ealdorman of Mercia, Atlas of Attestations, pp.143-72, 1982.

&. Keynes and . Regenbald, quoting no. 104 in Anglo-Saxon Writs, p.207, 1952.

P. Clarke, The English Nobility under Edward the Confessor, vol.32, pp.281-284, 1994.

P. Stafford, Q. Emma, and Q. Edith, Queenship and Women's Power in Eleventh-Century England, pp.306-324, 1997.

A. Gautier, Osgod Clapa ( ? 1054): pirate, corsaire, mercenaire ou rebelle?, Histoire navale, histoire maritime. Mélanges offerts à Patrick Villiers, pp.77-83, 2012.

F. Barlow, The Godwins. The Rise and Fall of a Noble Dynasty

S. Baxter, The Earls of Mercia, 2007.

S. Passio and . Edwardi, , pp.4-5, 1971.

M. William-of, Gesta regum Anglorum, i, 139, pp.222-225, 1998.

G. Lemarignier and . Royal, , p.154

. Ibid, , pp.156-163

G. Bournazel and . Capétien, , p.15

P. Bauduin, La première Normandie (X e -XI e siècle). Sur les frontières de la haute Normandie: identité et construction d'une principauté, p.212, 2004.

. Keynes, Atlas of Attestations, tables li, lvii, lvii-a, lviii and lxiii

, Even if there are two Eanulfs in one charter

. J. Pase and . Maddicott, identifies him as the same Eanulf to whom Edgar gave land at Ducklington, Oxfordshire, at the beginning of his reign: see S 678 (Abing 82); having just become king in Mercia, vol.9, pp.924-1327, 2010.

. Keynes, Atlas of Attestations, table lvii-a

. Ibid, . Tables, and . Lxiii,

T. Williams, . English, and . The-norman-conquest, , pp.100-102

&. Keynes and . Giso, , p.244

. Williams, The English and the Norman Conquest, vol.101

. Dickinson, AEgelsig stiweard' and 'Alfwold burþen, vol.107

D. C. Douglas, William the Conqueror. The Norman Impact upon England, p.290, 1964.

T. Williams, . English, and . The-norman-conquest, , pp.100-101

&. Keynes and . Giso, , p.245

T. Williams, . English, and . The-norman-conquest, , pp.120-122

, ealdorman, being more prestigious, would have supplanted that of discifer or pincerna in any

C. Halphen, , p.157

G. Bournazel, , pp.94-102

&. B. See and V. Dunstani, The Early Lives of St Dunstan, pp.36-43

C. Widunkind-of, Die Sachsengeschichte des Widunkind von Korvei, vol.2, p.67, 1935.

M. Thietmar-of, MGH SS rer. Germ. nova series ix, 1935), 141: 'Henricus ad mensam, Die Chronik des Bischofs Thietmar von Merseburg und ihre Korveier Überarbeitung, vol.9

H. Henry-of, Historia Anglorum, p.379, 1996.

R. Byrhtferth-of, , vol.7, p.110, 2009.

K. Roach and C. , , pp.203-207

&. Fleckenstein and . Struktur, , p.12

G. Bournazel, , pp.101-103

D. Waitz and . Verfassungsgeschichte, , p.501

, See above

&. B. and V. Dunstani, , pp.34-39

A. Gautier, , pp.23-44, 2009.

K. Roach and C. , , pp.77-103

. Ibid, , pp.173-94